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Android has a growing selection of third-party applications, which can be acquired by users by downloading and installing the application's APK Android application package file, or by downloading them using an application store program that allows users to install, update, and remove applications from their devices.
Google Play Store is the primary application store installed on Android devices that comply with Google's compatibility requirements and license the Google Mobile Services software.
Due to the open nature of Android, a number of third-party application marketplaces also exist for Android, either to provide a substitute for devices that are not allowed to ship with Google Play Store, provide applications that cannot be offered on Google Play Store due to policy violations, or for other reasons.
F-Droid , another alternative marketplace, seeks to only provide applications that are distributed under free and open source licenses.
In October , Google removed several Android applications from Play Store , as they were identified breaching its data collection rules. Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, Android is designed to manage processes to keep power consumption at a minimum.
When an application is not in use the system suspends its operation so that, while available for immediate use rather than closed, it does not use battery power or CPU resources.
While gaining support for bit platforms, Android was first made to run on bit x86 and then on ARM Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, GPS , orientation sensors , dedicated gaming controls, accelerometers , gyroscopes , barometers, magnetometers , proximity sensors , pressure sensors , thermometers, and touchscreens.
Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smartphones, and additional requirements apply if they are present.
Some other hardware was initially required, but those requirements have been relaxed or eliminated altogether.
For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional.
In addition to running on smartphones and tablets, several vendors run Android natively on regular PC hardware with a keyboard and mouse.
Android is developed by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available to the Android Open Source Project AOSP ,  an open source initiative led by Google.
The source code is, in turn, customized by original equipment manufacturers OEMs to run on their hardware. Google announces major incremental upgrades to Android on a yearly basis.
The extensive variation of hardware  in Android devices has caused significant delays for software upgrades and security patches.
Each upgrade has had to be specifically tailored, a time- and resource-consuming process. The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media.
In , Google began de-coupling certain aspects of the operating system particularly its central applications so they could be updated through the Google Play store independently of the OS.
One of those components, Google Play Services , is a closed-source system-level process providing APIs for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running Android 2.
With these changes, Google can add new system functions and update apps without having to distribute an upgrade to the operating system itself.
HTC 's then-executive Jason Mackenzie called monthly security updates "unrealistic" in , and Google was trying to persuade carriers to exclude security patches from the full testing procedures.
In May , Bloomberg Businessweek reported that Google was making efforts to keep Android more up-to-date, including accelerated rates of security updates, rolling out technological workarounds, reducing requirements for phone testing, and ranking phone makers in an attempt to "shame" them into better behavior.
As stated by Bloomberg : "As smartphones get more capable, complex and hackable, having the latest software work closely with the hardware is increasingly important".
Hiroshi Lockheimer, the Android lead, admitted that "It's not an ideal situation", further commenting that the lack of updates is "the weakest link on security on Android".
Wireless carriers were described in the report as the "most challenging discussions", due to their slow approval time while testing on their networks, despite some carriers, including Verizon Wireless and Sprint Corporation , already shortening their approval times.
In a further effort for persuasion, Google shared a list of top phone makers measured by updated devices with its Android partners, and is considering making the list public.
In May , with the announcement of Android 8. Project Treble separates the vendor implementation device-specific, lower-level software written by silicon manufacturers from the Android OS framework via a new "vendor interface".
In Android 7. With Treble, the new stable vendor interface provides access to the hardware-specific parts of Android, enabling device makers to deliver new Android releases simply by updating the Android OS framework, "without any additional work required from the silicon manufacturers.
In September , Google's Project Treble team revealed that, as part of their efforts to improve the security lifecycle of Android devices, Google had managed to get the Linux Foundation to agree to extend the support lifecycle of the Linux Long-Term Support LTS kernel branch from the 2 years that it has historically lasted to 6 years for future versions of the LTS kernel, starting with Linux kernel 4.
In May , with the announcement of Android 10 , Google introduced Project Mainline to simplify and expedite delivery of updates to the Android ecosystem.
As a result, important security and performance improvements that previously needed to be part of full OS updates can be downloaded and installed as easily as an app update.
Google reported rolling out new amendments in Android 12 aimed at making the use of third-party application stores easier.
This announcement rectified the concerns reported regarding the development of Android app, including a fight over an alternative in-app payment system and difficulties faced by businesses moving online because of COVID Android's kernel is based on the Linux kernel 's long-term support LTS branches.
As of [update] , Android uses versions 4. Android's variant of the Linux kernel has further architectural changes that are implemented by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle, such as the inclusion of components like device trees, ashmem, ION, and different out of memory OOM handling.
In August , Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".
The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: to memory the traditional suspend that Android uses , and to disk hibernate, as it is known on the desktop.
However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the open-source community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware.
Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation ,  Google's open-source chief Chris DiBona ,  and several journalists. With the release of Android Oreo in , Google began to require that devices shipped with new SoCs had Linux kernel version 4.
Existing devices upgraded to Oreo, and new products launched with older SoCs, were exempt from this rule. On top of the Linux kernel, there are the middleware , libraries and APIs written in C , and application software running on an application framework which includes Java -compatible libraries.
Development of the Linux kernel continues independently of Android's other source code projects. Following the trace-based JIT principle, in addition to interpreting the majority of application code, Dalvik performs the compilation and native execution of select frequently executed code segments "traces" each time an application is launched.
Bionic itself has been designed with several major features specific to the Linux kernel. At the same time, Bionic is licensed under the terms of the BSD licence , which Google finds more suitable for the Android's overall licensing model.
Android does not have a native X Window System by default, nor does it support the full set of standard GNU libraries. In current versions of Android, " Toybox ", a collection of command-line utilities mostly for use by apps, as Android does not provide a command-line interface by default , is used since the release of Marshmallow replacing a similar "Toolbox" collection found in previous Android versions.
Android's source code is released by Google under an open source license , and its open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the open-source code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which deliver updates to older devices, add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices originally shipped with other operating systems.
See List of custom Android distributions. Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development.
Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this.
As a result, technical obstacles including locked bootloaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the " jailbreaking " of mobile devices,  manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, including HTC ,  Motorola ,  Samsung   and Sony ,  providing support and encouraging development.
As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent hardware restrictions to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlockable bootloaders , similar to Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so.
Internally, Android identifies each supported device by its device codename , a short string,  which may or may not be similar to the model name used in marketing the device.
For example, the device codename of the Pixel smartphone is sailfish. The device codename is usually not visible to the end user, but is important for determining compatibility with modified Android versions.
It is sometimes also mentioned in articles discussing a device, because it allows to distinguish different hardware variants of a device, even if the manufacturer offers them under the same name.
The device codename is available to running applications under android. They are reportedly able to read almost all smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes.
GCHQ has, according to The Guardian , a wiki -style guide of different apps and advertising networks, and the different data that can be siphoned from each.
The documents revealed a further effort by the intelligence agencies to intercept Google Maps searches and queries submitted from Android and other smartphones to collect location information in bulk.
Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from to , detail the capabilities of the Central Intelligence Agency CIA to perform electronic surveillance and cyber warfare , including the ability to compromise the operating systems of most smartphones including Android.
Research from security company Trend Micro lists premium service abuse as the most common type of Android malware, where text messages are sent from infected phones to premium-rate telephone numbers without the consent or even knowledge of the user.
Other malware displays unwanted and intrusive advertisements on the device, or sends personal information to unauthorised third parties.
In August , Google announced that devices in the Google Nexus series would begin to receive monthly security patches. Google also wrote that "Nexus devices will continue to receive major updates for at least two years and security patches for the longer of three years from initial availability or 18 months from last sale of the device via the Google Store.
Google was starting from scratch with zero percent market share, so it was happy to give up control and give everyone a seat at the table in exchange for adoption.
As such, security has become a big issue. Android still uses a software update chain-of-command designed back when the Android ecosystem had zero devices to update, and it just doesn't work".
And a bunch of broken promises". They also wrote that "About half of devices in use at the end of had not received a platform security update in the previous year", stating that their work would continue to focus on streamlining the security updates program for easier deployment by manufacturers.
Patches to bugs found in the core operating system often do not reach users of older and lower-priced devices. For example, Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened microvisor for the "Knox" project.
Android smartphones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points.
These databases form electronic maps to locate smartphones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare , Google Latitude , Facebook Places , and to deliver location-based ads.
In , Norwegian security firm Promon has unearthed a serious Android security hole which can be exploited including to steal login credential, access messages, and track location, which the vulnerability could be found in all versions of Android, including Android The vulnerability came by exploiting a bug in multitasking system and enabling malicious app to overlay legitimate apps with fake login screens that the users did not aware when handing security credentials.
The users can also be tricked into granting additional permissions to the malicious apps, which later enable the apps to perform various nefarious activities, including interception of texts or calls and bank robbery.
Some of the preinstalled malwares can commit ad fraud, or even take over its host device. In , the Which?
This conclusion stemmed from the fact that no security updates were issued for the Android versions below 7. Google refused to comment on the watchdog's speculations.
On August 5, , Twitter published a blog urging its users to update their applications to the latest version with regards to a security concern that allowed others to access direct messages.
Twitter confirmed that updating the app will restrict such practices. Android applications run in a sandbox , an isolated area of the system that does not have access to the rest of the system's resources, unless access permissions are explicitly granted by the user when the application is installed, however this may not be possible for pre-installed apps.
It is not possible, for example, to turn off the microphone access of the pre-installed camera app without disabling the camera completely.
This is valid also in Android versions 7 and 8. Since February , Google has used its Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan apps available in the Google Play store.
Before installing an application, the Google Play store displays a list of the requirements an app needs to function. After reviewing these permissions, the user can choose to accept or refuse them, installing the application only if they accept.
An opt-in system is used instead, in which users are prompted to grant or deny individual permissions to an app when they are needed for the first time.
Applications remember the grants, which can be revoked by the user at any time. Pre-installed apps, however, are not always part of this approach.
In some cases it may not be possible to deny certain permissions to pre-installed apps, nor be possible to disable them. The Google Play Services app cannot be uninstalled, nor disabled.
Any force stop attempt, result in the app restarting itself. Permissions can still be revoked for those apps, though this might prevent them from working properly, and a warning is displayed to that effect.
Nova wrote that "The Android operating system deals with software packages by sandboxing them; this does not allow applications to list the directory contents of other apps to keep the system safe.
By not allowing the antivirus to list the directories of other apps after installation, applications that show no inherent suspicious behavior when downloaded are cleared as safe.
The study by Fraunhofer AISEC, examining antivirus software from Avast , AVG , Bitdefender , ESET , F-Secure , Kaspersky , Lookout , McAfee formerly Intel Security , Norton , Sophos , and Trend Micro , revealed that "the tested antivirus apps do not provide protection against customized malware or targeted attacks", and that "the tested antivirus apps were also not able to detect malware which is completely unknown to date but does not make any efforts to hide its malignity".
In August , Google announced Android Device Manager renamed Find My Device in May ,   a service that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device,   with an Android app for the service released in December.
On October 8, Google announced new Google Play store requirements to combat over-sharing of potentially sensitive information, including call and text logs.
The issue stems from the fact that many apps request permissions to access user's personal information even if this information is not needed for the app to function and some users unquestionably grant these permissions.
Alternatively, a permission might be listed in the app manifest as required as opposed to optional and app would not install unless user grants the permission; user can withdraw any, even required, permission from any app in the device settings after app installation, but few users do this.
Google promised to work with developers and create exceptions if their apps require Phone or SMS permissions for "core app functionality".
The new policies enforcement started on January 6, , 90 days after policy announcement on October 8, The API level requirement might combat practice of app developers bypassing some permission screens by specifying early Android versions that had more coarse permission model.
The source code for Android is open-source : it is developed in private by Google, with the source code released publicly when a new version of Android is released.
Google publishes most of the code including network and telephony stacks under the non-copyleft Apache License version 2.
Associated Linux kernel changes are released under the copyleft GNU General Public License version 2, developed by the Open Handset Alliance , with the source code publicly available at all times.
The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom ,  and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smartphones a version of Android intended for tablets.
These applications must be licensed from Google by device makers, and can only be shipped on devices which meet its compatibility guidelines and other requirements.
Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant , because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because the Google Play Store application can forcibly install or uninstall applications and, as a result, invite non-free software.
In both cases, the use of closed-source software causes the system to become vulnerable to backdoors. It has been argued that because developers often require to purchase the Google-brand Android license, this has turned the theoretically open system into a freemium service.
Google licenses their Google Mobile Services software, along with the Android trademarks, only to hardware manufacturers for devices that meet Google's compatibility standards specified in the Android Compatibility Program document.
In , Google also began to require that all Android devices which license the Google Mobile Services software display a prominent "Powered by Android" logo on their boot screens.
Moreover, open-source variants of some applications also exclude functions that are present in their non-free versions.
Apps that do not use Google components would also be at a functional disadvantage, as they can only use APIs contained within the OS itself.
In turn, third-party apps may have dependencies on Google Play Services. Alibaba Group defended the allegations, arguing that the OS was a distinct platform from Android primarily using HTML5 apps , but incorporated portions of Android's platform to allow backwards compatibility with third-party Android software.
Indeed, the devices did ship with an application store which offered Android apps; however, the majority of them were pirated. Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android.
Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used smartphone operating system   and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available".
As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Technica as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms.
These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android's popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected.
Android has suffered from "fragmentation",  a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less.
For example, according to data from OpenSignal in July , there were 11, models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS.
They maintain this forces Android developers to write for the "lowest common denominator" to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the latest hardware or software features only available on a smaller percentage of devices.
Research company Canalys estimated in the second quarter of , that Android had a 2. By the third quarter of , Gartner estimated that more than half Android market share varies by location.
In April , Android had 1. Android devices account for more than half of smartphone sales in most markets, including the US, while "only in Japan was Apple on top" September—November numbers.
Three billion Android smartphones are estimated to be sold by the end of including previous years. According to Gartner research company, Android-based devices outsold all contenders, every year since According to StatCounter , which tracks only the use for browsing the web, Android is the most popular mobile operating system since August According to StatCounter, Android is most used on mobile in all African countries, and it stated "mobile usage has already overtaken desktop in several countries including India, South Africa and Saudi Arabia",  with virtually all countries in Africa having done so already except for seven countries, including Egypt , such as Ethiopia and Kenya in which mobile including tablets usage is at According to a January Gartner report, "Android surpassed a billion shipments of devices in , and will continue to grow at a double-digit pace in , with a 26 percent increase year over year.
Gartner expected the whole mobile phone market to "reach two billion units in ", including Android. According to a Statistica 's estimate, Android smartphones had an installed base of 1.
In the second quarter of , Android's share of the global smartphone shipment market was According to an April StatCounter report, Android overtook Microsoft Windows to become the most popular operating system for total Internet usage.
In September , Google announced that Android had 1. Despite its success on smartphones, initially Android tablet adoption was slow.
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